Statement of Professional Philosophy




Before pursuing my career in librarianship, I spent several years working as a teacher in preschool, elementary, and secondary education. I have always had a deep love for education, but I found my true calling in librarianship. I am excited to have the opportunity to begin my life an academic librarian. I am elated about the possibility of combining my love of education and my love of information expertise. I live for connecting users to information and seeking out what is difficult for others to find. As Mason (1990) describes, “information professionals empower their clients to understand and to know – as distinguished from the power to will or to feel”.  I seek to help others understand information and to provide them with the knowledge necessary to help individuals succeed.

I have spent the past three years working towards my MLIS degree at SJSU while working for at Andrew G. Truxal library in Maryland. I have also had the opportunity to work for Hawaii Pacific University’s Meader and Atherton libraries during my time seeking my first master’s in Education at Chaminade University in Honolulu, Hawaii. My love for libraries began when I worked for my Feinberg library at Plattsburgh State University during my undergraduate work as a Library Assistant. I have spent the past decade in the library and information science field. My work experience and my coursework in information science has given me invaluable insight into the world of librarianship.

My work experiences have allowed me to learn the ins and outs of the information profession from the ground up, assisting on various projects in Periodicals department including large weeding of the print periodical and planning the redesign of the department. I have had experience in Circulation with assisting patrons, training, and supervising the student assistants/ Circulation staff members. I have enjoyed working in academic library environments and assisting students with finding the materials they need to complete their classwork. It inspired me to want to take my career further and expand my knowledge of library and information science. I have always loved reading and searching for information. My undergraduate coursework in English and Education gave me a foundation in the writing process as well as a wide breadth of knowledge on educational philosophy.

I have long held a passion for assisting people with their education and working to expand their knowledge on a myriad of subjects. I have a passion for research since my time as an undergraduate student that has just grown over the years. I enjoy working with others and providing excellent service to patrons. I have a love for my work that I believe is infectious to both my coworkers and patrons. As information professionals, we are the gatekeepers of knowledge lighting the way for individuals on their path to understanding.  In Mason’s (1990) article, he describes of an information professional as someone who empowers people through the use of information, “this empowering information, as Fritz Machlup once described it, consists of the signs and symbols that one mind uses to influence another mind. Thus, information professionals are the people who carry out this process of influence on the mind”. Information professionals assist in helping people grow their mind and enhance their knowledge. Knowledge empowers individuals and enhances their lives. As an information professional, I hope to provide patrons with knowledge and understanding. I desire to assist individuals to become successful people and knowledgeable global citizens.


One of my greatest motivations to become an information professional is helping the students succeed. I enjoy watching them evolve as students and move on to successful futures due to the assistance we have given them. Information literacy instruction and information intermediation allows us to help students think about information before they simply just use or believe what it is they read. One of the most memorable courses I took as an undergraduate was a developmental psychology course in which our professors spend a large portion of the course simply teaching us to identify the validity of the scientific method used in a variety of research. He believed that the most important thing he could instruct us on was not to memorize theories, but instead taught us the skills required to be able to determine for ourselves which theories had validity and which used poor scientific methods or poor scientific reasoning. I have cherished and utilized this skill throughout my life. This is one of the many reasons I believe that information literacy is so important. Teaching students the about not just the scientific processes used in experiments, but the validity of information is an invaluable gift we can give to students of all majors and all levels of society. As the recent U.S. presidential elections demonstrated to our society that understanding the currency, reliability or relevance, authority or audience, accuracy, and purpose or point view is critical to functioning as a citizen. According to Jacobs and Berg (2011) President Barack Obama issued a proclamation stating that “an informed and educated citizenry is essential to the functioning of our modern democratic society”. I believe that part of being an information professional is promoting the love of lifelong learning and educating our citizenry in information literacy skills as Jacobs and Berg (2011) reiterates President Obama’s writing, “I encourage educational and community institutions across the country to help Americans find and evaluate the information they seek, in all its forms”. As our society becomes increasingly global, it is incredibly important to educate our citizens on how to analyze information in all fields. This includes being able to accurately determine if information shared by news sources or social media is accurate or credible. This is one of the main missions and purposes of librarianship and as an information professional, I planned to dedicate myself to ensuring that our patrons become informed and educated for all purposes including personal, social, occupational, and educational.

My future career goals

I am a graduate student in the Masters in library and information science program with a concentration in instruction and intimidation. My undergraduate work and my previous graduate work are in English literature and Education. I wish to ensure information and library services are accessible to all individuals. I wish to work in an academic library in instruction and reference services. Although, there are many areas of librarianship that interest me, and I would be excited to explore especially as the information field is expanding due to digital technology.

One of my professional goals is to become an academic Librarian who also serves as a  liaison between academic libraries, writing centers; disabilities support services, veterans support services, and interdisciplinary fields. I want to expand libraries as part of the academic communities. I want to make libraries more accessible to all types of students and Information Literacy instruction (ILI) more inclusive to individuals with disabilities. I plan to do this by utilizing universal design approaches in ILI to make library services more accessible. I also want to assist with designing and utilizing interfaces that are more accessible to individuals with disabilities. Changing small things like using Sans serif fonts can make web pages or instructional supplements more accessible. Using alternatives to programs like reCAPTCHA, this is a program for protecting websites from spam or bots. For the bot or spam machine to get to the data, they must write the words or letters they view. This can be difficult for individuals with dyslexia and can make library forms inaccessible. Changing our services in small ways can make a large impact on individuals with disabilities. Changing techniques not only in instruction but also in reference services including adding more ways to reach us via email or via virtual conferencing such as Blackboard Collaborate can make services more inclusive.  I also wish to study copyright laws in relation to accessibility for people with disabilities, inform libraries of what they can do to help ensure accessibility. I want to advocate for changes as needed to ensure that copyright laws are unnecessarily disenfranchising those with disabilities. I want to ensure that our libguides take in consideration individuals with disabilities as well I have already addressed altering reference interview techniques and libguides to assist individuals with disabilities in competency C and Competency K .

I also wish to assist our ESL learners to develop their skills so that they can be successful in academia. Many ESL students need resources available in multiple languages and working with ESL services to help offer resources in multiple languages. This can include employing staff members with bilingual capabilities. I hope to work in conjunction with writing labs or tutoring center to help develop their academic writing skills in English.  It can include having libguides or instructional handout available in multiple languages. In my strategic plan, I created goals for expansion of library materials in Spanish to address the community needs in competency B

Another goal I have is to increase the utilization of Open Educational Resources (OER) to decrease the cost of textbooks to college students. I created a mock grant for OER resources in my Competency N. I think this is an important need for students today to enhance accessibility and reduce costs of textbooks. I think this can also reduce the cost of materials for libraries if we incorporate more Open resources in our digital collections. I would like to review and evaluate open education resources to ensure they are quality educational resources for incorporation into the curriculum. I would also evaluate these resources for accessibility to individuals with disabilities.  I would also like to create open resources for student work donated or which students give permission for the library to use for engineering students such as projects created in makerspaces.

My final goal I have is to use makerspaces in an academic library to facilitate the instruction of information literacy. I would like to assess IL instruction using makerspaces on an institutional level and evaluate their effectiveness at teaching IL skills to students. I began a project proposal in competency L for evaluating makerspaces used for ILI using portfolio assessments.


It is my professional goals to make libraries more inclusive and accessible to individuals with disabilities. In the future, I hope to aid making interfaces more accessible to individuals with disabilities and evaluate open educational resources to ensure accessibility to all types of users. I wish to encourage lifelong learning and information literacy skills for all patrons. I wish to encourage the seeking of information in all its forms and be a catalyst for creating an informed and educated society. It is my professional goal to evaluate programs, collections, and services to ensure they effectively meet our user’s needs. It is my goal to create a culture of inclusion and to be a devoted social justice advocate. I hope to contribute to the profession of librarianship by bringing my knowledge and skills that I have learned through my time at SJSU to enhance the information organizations that employ me in the future.


Mason, R. (1990). What Is an Information Professional? Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 31(2), 122-138. doi:10.2307/40323396

Jacobs, H. L., & Berg, S. (2011). Reconnecting Information Literacy Policy with the Core Values of Librarianship. Library Trends, 60(2), 383-394. doi:10.1353/lib.2011.0043





Throughout the process and progress of my Masters in Library and Information Science at SJSU I have learned about so many varieties of information professionals and information organizations. I have expanded my skill sets exponentially and have a deeper understanding of modern librarianship. I think that the ischool’s virtual program is ideal for learning librarianship in this digital era as our world becomes increasingly interconnected via digital means and our users frequently turn to virtual means to seek information and assistance. I entered the MLIS program in the fall of 2014 with a vague understanding of everything that librarianship entailed. I focused my coursework in areas of interests, in courses to expand my digital skill sets, and in coursework that would fill my gaps in knowledge. Exploring the many facets of librarianship has been fascinating and has ignited my passion for working in this exciting field. Wearing the many hats of an academic librarian may seem exhausting to some, but I welcome the opportunity to have a career that has so many different aspects. It is a demanding field and I look forward to what careers may be in my future.

I have enjoyed collaborating with groups virtual and would have never thought it would be so rewarding. I have learned so many new technologies and techniques related to librarianship. I have enjoyed the peer reviews and the discussion posts in the coursework they have really given me a better sense of how many types of libraries operate and address user’s needs. Hearing classmate’s perspectives on topic expand and challenge your own viewpoints. My classmates have been invaluable assisting to accumulating myself to technologies used in the course and to returning to graduate school after a long hesitates. I have had some challenging professors and some extremely rewarding feedback that assisted me in my growth as a student. The knowledge I have gained during my graduate coursework will be invaluable to my future success. I have progressed so far from the stumbling returning student to the confident and capable graduate student. I have seen my abilities develop greatly during my time as SJSU and I am grateful that I was able to have the opportunity to attend this program.

Discussion of strengths

This program has made me realize new strengths that I did not know I had previously. knew that I had a strength in instructing others and organization from my previous experiences as an educator, but I did not realize that I had other strengths applicable to the field. Having never participated in organizational analysis or strategic planning I did not know that I would enjoy it so much or that I would have a knack for planning and analysis. This program also highlighted my customer service driven approaches to the information profession and my creative problem-solving abilities.

Creative problem-solving is vital to help libraries stay relevant in this fast-paced and ever changing digital society. In this digital age and smaller budget means that information professionals are taking on more tasks within information organizations. Information professionals are often many different things at once such as instructors, liaisons, managers, copyright experts, and reference personnel.  Having the knowledge and training to take on multiple jobs within a library can be useful even in the best of times it allows for flexibility to assist your information organized in various department and can make you a valued employee with many capabilities. Information professionals need to be able to create solutions to new problems that are created as technology expands being able to invent solutions and create new services will help to keep libraries relevant in the digital age. Envisioning libraries as not just information storage, but also for information creation will expand our services into the future.

Customer services has always been extremely important to me besides truly loving my field and passionately loving finding information. I have always believed that libraries need to be customer service focused. A patron first approach that seeks to put the needs of our users in an attentive and friendly manner.  Being friendly and coming up with a multitude of ways to address a user’s needs can go a long way to creating a service orientated environment. Going beyond their expectation to try to connect a user to the information they need. Information professionals need to demonstrate to users their value by giving them what Google cannot in the sense of service and instruction. Good listening skills and asking clarifying questions to determine what resources a user needs to answer their needs. Asking for feedback and following up to be sure that you were able to meet their needs is invaluable. Information professionals that are always ready to help and treat our patrons with kindness keep users returning to libraries for their information needs. We need excellent people skills to draw users in and elicit recommendations of our services to other potential users.

Planning and analysis, I had never really considered my ability to plan and evaluate as a strength. I have always been a list maker and a planner of events for my family, but I never consider these in strengths as having professional applications. I have created lesson plans and curriculum during my time as a teacher. I just didn’t realize that I would be good at organizational planning and analysis. I truly enjoyed strategic planning creating SMART goals and metrics for evaluations was deeply interesting to me. When we were developing goals and evaluation in our course I noticed in the discussion posts the compliments and requests for advice that I received from my classmates. Planning collection development to determining the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and threats of an organization came very naturally to me. I enjoyed analysis information to determine the gaps in services and areas of weakness in a collection. I hope to be able to apply these skills in my future employment because I think they are invaluable skills to improving information organizations ability to meet their patron’s needs.

Plans for professional growth

I plan to participate in internships to further expand my abilities in virtual and in-person reference skills. I also plan to continue to seek out professional development courses through my current employment to enhance my skills in librarianship. I plan to teach instructional courses in information literacy. I plan to continuously seek out opportunities for growth and to continue to enhance my professional skills. I also plan to further my education in this field by pursuing my doctor in Library and Information Science. I plan to work in an academic library environment and continue to promote library services to the community. I plan to develop professional development course on serving individuals with disabilities in the library. I will continue to seek out mentors in the field to help me develop my skills in librarianship. I think it is vital to continue exploring and studying new ways to improve library services and to continue being part of the conversation about cultural and technological changes. I will continue to seek out ways to improve services and access for all our users. I envision assisting in increasing the use of open education resources to lower the costs of textbooks for students and to expand our collections. I also plan to work towards libraries creating their own unique collections that will offer their students information or collections that are not accessible from competing sources of information. I also hope to work on digital humanities projects that will help to expand the field of humanities into the digital era. I seek to keep the humanities relevant while promoting STEAM initiatives.




All introductory, reflective, and evidentiary work submitted is mine alone (except where indicated as a group or team project), and has been prepared solely by me.

  • I am protecting the privacy of the contents of my e-Portfolio by password protecting it or by sharing the URL only with my e-portfolio advisor.
  • Before making my e-portfolio public I will respect the privacy of others by removing mention in this e-Portfolio of information that could lead to the identity of individuals (team members in group projects, internship supervisors, interviewees, etc.) and institutions.


Danielle M. Noble

Competency N



Students at SJSU ischool need to demonstrate the ability to evaluate programs and services using measurable criteria  I take this competency to include an information professionals ability to assess instruction practices, program assessments, usage surveys, data gathering and analysis practices for the purpose of improving products and services in information organizations. In my background as a teacher and education, I have often had to use measurable criteria to develop student-learning outcomes and evaluate instruction for effectiveness. However, my coursework at SJSU gave me the opportunity to enhance those skills and to apply them to information literacy, evaluating programs, and library services. The evaluation process in information organization can encompass a myriad of elements due to the broad and interdisciplinary nature of Library and information science. In the assessment process, an organization must according to Radcliff (2007), “gather data, analyze & interpret, plan for improvement, share data & plan, and implement the plan”.

Information organizations are often services oriented and goal driven as with many service-based business information organizations planning is required to keep performance at an optimal level. Information organizations need to be certain they are maintaining quality customer-service standards and providing the services that their community needs.  Evaluating our services, performance, practices, information literacy instructions, and our collection to ensure it is in line with the needs of our patrons is imperative to being a valued part of the communities in which information organization operate. Information organization, for example, academic libraries often operate under the larger umbrella of institutional goals, missions, and values that they must align themselves with when considering their own goals.  Organizational goals are often complicated and change over time as the populations they serve and the resources on which they rely upon change. Underneath main goals, there are often more short-term goals such as increasing the number of attendees at a particular event or reaching a circulation usage benchmark.  In order to determine if short-term goals or long-term goals were met, they need to evaluate. Creating clearly defined and measurable goals aid the evaluation process easily determine what success looks like for the program or service were evaluating.  The organization must perform assessments to determine how effectively each goal was addressed and if the changes implemented made an impact on the environment or community in which the information organization operates. As Evans & Alire (2013) state the goal of assessment is often to “improve the quality of our operations, services, and programs”. As information organizations, we want to operate optimally within often times constrained budgets while still providing the best possible facilities, programs, and services to our community.  Assessment is important to creating and maintaining high standards and improving an organization.

Doing assessments regardless of whether it is on how well our ILI programs implement ARCL frameworks to how well our libraries serve teen populations information professionals must choose the appropriate tools for gathering information and criteria for determining success. In organization planning, the evaluation process should begin with measurable goals and in instruction; student-learning outcomes should be clearly defined and measurable. Instruction should also begin with some benchmark or prior skills assessment to determine what skill levels students began instruction with and an assessment for measuring how those skills changed or did not change due to instruction. The assessment process also can assist in as Radcliff (2007) points out, “identifying the gaps in our instruction and informing us as to what we can do to improve our instruction”(p. 11). Once the gaps in knowledge are identified, a plan is implemented to address those gaps. Some gaps can be easily identified or are observable such as not having enough study room for students and some are more difficult to ascertain such as are we meeting the information literacy needs of our students.

There are a number of different ways to collect the data needed to for the assessment process. User satisfaction, for example, can be measured by a variety of survey and feedback methods. Various services can be measured using tools such as Google Analytics for tracking website usage or database services such as EBSCO can provide usage statistics of databases for your institution that can track how often users and staff engage in certain interactions with systems. Comparing the costs of databases for example from various vendors or comparing the various types of packages offered by a vendor can be vital getting the most resources for your budget. Usage data can be an incredibly useful tool in determining which database our patrons frequently utilize databases and comparing that data to vendor packages can help information professionals maximize the resources they can provide while maintaining their budgets. For libraries, there are several tools and standards that exist that can help streamline the assessment process for the organization such as the LibQUAL survey and ARCL Frameworks for Information Literacy for Higher Education.  Choosing the correct tool to gather data is crucial to ensuring the success of any assessment. Knowing what type of information is needed to evaluate programs and having clear objectives about what it is you are trying to assess is essential to make improvements to an organization. Gathering data on student work can happen in a multitude of ways.  When assessing student work or student performance in an instructional setting there are several main types of assessments you can implement according to Radcliff (2007):

Formative assessment: in process; progress along the way; development Examples: In-class exercise or reflections on the process of learning.

Summative assessment: the final result; adding pieces of information together to get a sum Examples: final exams, surveys at the end of the course, reflection components of portfolios summarizing the value of a project.

Director authentic assessment: Characterizes assessment that is a result of direct contact with a student. This could be a product, such as a search strategy developed by a student in class, or a portfolio of student work, it also includes tests, annotated bibliographies, and papers.

Indirect assessment: Characterizes assessment information that has been inferred from observation or from surveys. It is subject to interpretation and relies on inferences.



INFO 282 Assignment 8

INFO 282 extra credit assignment

INFO 285 Assignment 3

My first piece of evidence is my assignment 8 from my INFO 282 course on Grant Writing and Alternative Funding Resources this assignment was to find a grant or mini-grant to either create a mock grant proposal as though you were a grant writer for a client in this assignment my client was a community college library. This grant proposal would include a letter of introduction, proposal summary, Organization overview, Statement of needs, Project description, Approach/methodology, budget requestion, evaluation process, and an appendix of any additional documents needed for the grant. For this assignment, I chose to create a proposal for a grant put out by the University of Maryland to assist with gaining Open Educational Resources to make textbooks more affordable for college students. In this project, I create an evaluation for determining if we successfully implemented the grant and for measuring and evaluating the success of utilizing the Open Educational Resources.  I included this assignment as evidence of my ability to evaluate programs and services using measurable criteria.

My second piece of evidence is my extra credit assignment from my INFO 282 course on  Grant Writing and Alternative Funding Resources. This was an extra credit presentation option that allowed students to present on a topic related to grant writing. The topic I chose for this presentation was working with grant clients on evaluation metrics. I noticed that a majority of my classmates struggled with creating evaluation metrics in our discussion posts for that unit. I chose to do a presentation on skills related to creating evaluating metrics. I included this presentation as evidence of my ability to effectively measure and evaluate programs and services using measurable criteria.

My final piece of evidence is my assignment  #3 from my INFO 285 course on Research Methods in Library and Information Science Topic: Assessment of Information Literacy Instruction. This assignment asked students to create an assessment design project: Students will develop a small information literacy assessment tool for their user group (identified in the literature review) including writing learning outcomes.  I chose to create a rubric to assess student e-portfolios generated from library and information literacy instruction taught in academic library settings. I used performance assessment techniques to determine if information literacy skills improving when ILI utilizes makerspaces.


Evaluating the services and instructional programs are crucial to making improvements to any institution. Using metrics for that evaluation that are measurable is important to ensure that improvements are occurring and that the correct changes are being made to meet the needs of our users. Understanding the evaluation process including how to utilize its tools and how to implement measurable criteria into an evaluation process is invaluable knowledge for information professionals. Information professionals can not improve services if we do not assess how effectively changes is implementing change and determine if that change was effective in addressing the gaps in service or knowledge. Information organization needs to perform optimally in order to stay competitive in this digital age and one way we can do that is by participating in the continuous evaluation of our services, programs, and practices. I enjoyed learning various evaluation tools and improving my ability to implement assessments for a variety of purposes. My time as SJSU has given me a great understanding of the assessment cycle as it applies to information organizations and it has broadened my understanding of assessment. Providing excellent service to patrons is of key importance to me and this knowledge will be applicable in my future as an information profession in a multitude of ways.


Evans, G.E. & Alire, C.A. (2013). Management Basics for Information Professionals. 3rd Edition. Chicago: Neal-Schuman.

Radcliff, C. J. (2007). Practical Guide to Information Literacy Assessment for Academic Librarians. Libraries Unlimited Incorporated.

Competency M



Competency M requires students at San Jose State University to Ischool graduate program to demonstrate oral and written communication skills necessary for professional work including collaboration and presentations 

As information professional communication is a key skill to possess because so much of being an information professional is related to the dissemination of information. This requires at its most basic and inherent level a need for the ability to communicate effectively. Information professionals need to be able to talk, listen, read, and write to fulfill our most fundamental job requirements. An information professional positions exist to provide,” the right [objectified] information from the right source to the right client at the right time in the form most suitable for the use to which it is to be put and at a cost that is justified by its use”(Mason, 1990, p.124). Connecting users to information is a major component of being an information professional. Understanding that a user seeks assistance from an information professional because they have an information need. An information professional, “has the requisite knowledge about and access to the sources necessary to acquire this information” (Mason, 1990, p. 126). It takes effective communication skills to impart the knowledge that information professional possesses to users who need the information and access to obtain knowledge.

Many information positions including reference positions require daily interactions and communications with patrons both face to face and frequently virtually. Instruction positions in the information field also require excellent oral and written communication in order to teach individuals information literacy skills. In nearly every type of information professional position from management to cataloging there exists the need to effectively communicate with others. According to Evans and Alire (2013), “During your career, three communication skills will stand out and impact your progress-oral, written, and listening”.  Information professionals must listen effectively to understand user’s information needs, capable of expressing themselves in written format to fulfill virtual requests for information, and communicate orally to productively provide patrons with information either face to face, virtually, or via phone. In order to be successful in the information science field, you need to possess good communication skills. Information professionals also need to be able to professional communicate via writing and in oral connects to effectively manage in an information organization. Managers need to write memos, emails to staff, and often write policies that need to be easily understood. Evans and Alire (2013) state that the following questions can improve written or oral communication:

  • What am I trying to Convey?
  • With whom am I communicating?
  • When is the best time to do this?
  • Where is the best place?
  • What is the best channel?
  • Why am I communicating?

When we stop to ask ourselves these questions prior to communicating with others we can improve the effectiveness of our conversations with others.  When we take time to actively listen to others when they are communicating we become more effective and responsive managers. Listening effectively allows staff members to be feel heard and understood.  Evans and Alire (2013) assert that, “There is a significant difference between hearing and listening. Listening is a skill that you must practice to develop it effectively”. This is an important skill to managing individuals in libraries so that complaints and ideas can be heard and considered. Communication and listening efficiently also helps to make staff members feel valued and understood. Communication is also important when working collaboratively, as a liaison between departments or organizations, and negotiating with vendors. These types of communications can impact a libraries operation, funding, expansion, and access to resources. These are vital aspects of the information profession that can affect users, staff, stakeholders, and community members. Unclear or poorly written reports given to a library board of directors or institutional administrators can mean the difference between receiving necessary resources or risk appropriation of resource to other departments or organizations. Information professionals need to be able to clearly communicate and add meaningful contributions to information exchanges. As information professional needs to able to hear a patrons request, ask clarifying questions to gain an understanding of the information need, to disseminate information, and check with the user to ensure that the answers meet their needs.  These are all important components of communication and feedback.  Bell (2015) reiterates Robert Taylor’s quote that, “Without a doubt, the negotiation of reference questions is one of the most complex acts of human communication. During this process, one person tries to describe for another person, not something he knows, but rather something he does not know”. In order to conduct reference interviews either face to face or virtually information professionals must have excellent professional oral and written communication skills.


INFO 250 Guide on the Side Tutorial

INFO 203 Personal Skills Teamwork assignment

INFO Group D Team Progress Report

Collaborate sessions for INFO 204 group project

Collaborate Sessions for Info 204

My first piece of evidence is my Guide on the side tutorial from my INFO 250 course in Design and Implementation of Instructional Strategies for Information Professionals. Guide on the Side is an open source tool for creating online tutorials. It was developed by the librarians at the University of Arizona.  Students were assigned to work in groups to create a Guide on the side tutorial that includes at least three different media: text, images, quizzes/surveys, etc. Students were asked to think about the best practices put forth in the professional literature about online tutorials and to implement those concepts. The quiz feature is meant to be a check for understanding (formative assessment), and it allows only for a single correct answer. The feedback is provided through a pop-up to the learner. The survey feature is intended to provide feedback to the creator of the Guide about the effectiveness of the Guide (which would happen with a survey because you provided your email address in the setup). Students were also asked to write a reflection that describes what you and your partner were trying to
accomplish with the tutorial, what pedagogical considerations you made as you designed
and created the tutorial, what you learned about the process of creating online tutorials,
and what you might do differently the next time you create an online tutorial. The assignment required students to incorporate at least two articles or books from the professional literature. The reflection was required to shows your groups ability
to apply the theories learned about throughout the course. My partner and I collaborated to create the tutorial both contributing to the creation of the tutorial adding quiz questions equally. The tutorial was a collaboration of a database she was utilized frequently and a subject matter that was familiar to me from my work experience. This assignment is included as evidence of my ability to communicate effectively and work collaboratively.

My second piece of evidence is my personal skills teamwork assignment from INFO 203 course on Online Learning: tools and strategies for success. Students in this course were asked to work in small teams to create a list of ground rules that a team could use to organize their work. The teams were asked to determine team roles, create a short list of ground rules that a team could use to organize its work, and complete a personal reflection on the group work process including their assigned role on the team and how the work was completed. My position in this team was the team leader as the group leader I facilitated the assignment of roles and creation of the ground rules for the team. I included this assignment as evidence of my ability to communicate effectively and collaborate professionally with other information professionals.

My final piece of evidence is my group D progress report from my INFO 204 course on information professionals. In this assignment, the groups were to collaborate in Blackboard Collaborate sessions to complete a group project. This assignment required the group to choose roles, create ground rules, create a timeline for work completion, to define the roles and responsibilities of each group member, to choose an organization to analyze, and consider the challenges related to working in a virtual group. In this group, I served as the editor and assistant writer for the group. I included the written assignment as well as recordings of our group collaboration to demonstrate my ability to communicate professionally using both oral and written skills to complete a group project.


I think one of the most beneficial aspects of returning to graduate school after a long break was the group work. Working collaboratively via virtual means gave me a better understanding of the varying skills necessary to perform group work virtually in differing time zones and from diverse backgrounds. SJSU has given me in general during my time a better understanding of professional communications and teamwork skills. I have enjoyed the update on my communication skills and development of new skills appropriate for the virtual world that we live and work in on daily basis. My coursework has enhanced my skills and approaches to committee assignments. My years of experience teaching and assigning group work in my classrooms demonstrated to me the importance of group collaboration on projects. However, working in groups on a professional level to complete assignments virtually provided me with all new types of communication and technical skills needed to complete assignments as a group. I found these experiences rewarding and I believe that my skills are much improved due to becoming more deliberate in the use of communication techniques and methods. My time at SJSU has given me a better understanding of the processes behind professional communications and has developed my skills in this area in a multitude of ways.


Bell, S. S. (2015). Librarian’s guide to online searching (4th ed.) [Kindle DX version].

Evans, G.E., & Alire, C.A. (2013). Management basics for information professionals. (3rd ed.). Chicago: Neal-Schuman.

Mason, R.O. (1990). What is an information professional? Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 31(2), 122-138. doi: 10.2307/40323396


Competency L



Students in SJSU Ischool’s graduate program must be able to demonstrate understanding of quantitative and qualitative research methods, the ability to design a research project, and the ability to evaluate and synthesize research literature;  in order to demonstrate their grasp of information sciences, their preparedness to become an information professional, and to prove that they have a firm grasp of this core competency.  Information professionals need to be able to perform research for many purposes such as for improving collection development, assessment of information literacy instruction, assessment of library services, and even to gather information for the physical design of library spaces. Understanding the multiple types of research methods that exist including quantitative, qualitative, and MMR (Mix Method Research) are necessary to conduct research in the field of library and information science (LIS). LIS is an interdisciplinary field where many of topics information professional research cross over into other disciplines.

Research is essential to the growth and development of the LIS field. Information professionals need to be familiar with the strategies and techniques of research that they might encounter or need to utilize when conducting research in the LIS field, “MLS students need exposure to a wide range of methods given the wide range of professional contexts in which future research may be carried out or encountered”(Hider & Pymm, 2008, p.108). It is important to understand the methods of research to effectively further innovations and services in the field of LIS. Information professional, especially in these increasingly digital times, need to contribute to the research and development of innovative approaches to assist LIS field to remain relevant and to rely on evidence-based practices to solve problems.

Information professional also need to be able to design research for evaluating library services, developing better information retrieval systems, designing better techniques for streamlining information, designing higher quality user interfaces, refining instructional theories, and techniques for Information literacy instruction. The need for research and application of research within the LIS field can be endless especially due to the multidisciplinary nature of the field.  The LIS field can also make it difficult to conduct research and to apply appropriate research methods due to the interdisciplinary nature of the field, “The problem is that LIS is a very broad discipline, or meta-discipline, that uses a wide variety of continuously evolving strategies and techniques”(Hider & Pymm, 2008, p.108). As information professionals, we need to understand a wide variety of research methods to carry out research in our field and to assist many disciplines in conducting research. Information professionals need to understand both qualitative and quantitative research methods to be able to apply them relevantly to research projects being conducted in the field of LIS and in the disciplines that the LIS field crosses over.

Information professionals need to be able to design research projects and utilized effective research methods to conduct research that can further the field of Library and Information science.  They also need to understand the various types of research including quantitative and qualitative research in order to choose the optimal type of research methods for designing their research projects.  According to Leavy(2017), Quantitative research uses, “deductive approaches to the research process aimed at proving, disproving, or lending credence to existing theories. This type of research involves measuring variables and testing relationships between variables in order to reveal patterns, correlations, or causal relationships”. When deciding what type of research method would work best it is important to keep in mind the purpose of the research, the questions needed to determine the answers, and the type of data that is needed to answer the question or solve the problem related to the research. This can help information professional determine which approach would be most effective for the research they are carrying out or allow them to assist other researchers in determining the best methods to carry out their research. Some types of research questions or problems call for quantitative analysis using carefully gathered and structured data such as questions about data usage or questions about how specific user groups utilize library resources. Others demand qualitative methods, using unstructured data such as interviews or open-ended survey questions; to gather information on user’s behaviors or information needs. For instance, quantitative research can be most applicable when, “quantifiable measures of variables of interest are possible, where hypotheses can be formulated and tested, and inferences drawn from samples to populations”(Connaway & Powell, 2010). When information professional research subject areas that require experimentation to test a hypothesis are in line with quantitative research methods.  However, qualitative data can be most useful for determining why some individuals or groups do not use library services and how patrons react or respond to library events or workshops.  “Qualitative research is generally characterized by inductive approaches to knowledge building aimed at generating meaning. Researchers use this approach to explore; to robustly investigate and learn about social phenomenon”(Leavy, 2017. p.9).  Qualitative data can be gathered in many ways such as case studies or participant observations. “Qualitative research focuses on attempting to understand why participants react as they do. Qualitative research tends to apply a more holistic and natural approach to the resolution of a problem than does quantitative research”(Connaway & Powell, 2010. p. 41-42). This type of research can assist information professionals in understanding how various human behaviors and reactions related to the library and information sciences field.

When designing research projects and choosing the type of research that is required for your topic it is important to consider the type of data that will be gathered using research methods. According to Grassian and Kaplowitz (2009),” formal research studies (i.e., comparing instructional methodologies, assessing the long-term effectiveness of your instruction) or for justifying your ILI programs, courses, or classes to your supervisor, administrators, or beyond you may need to collection numerical data that can be statistically manipulated”. In order to conduct research information professionals, need to be able acquainted with data collection methods and data analysis techniques, tools for collecting various types of data.  Numerical data or quantitative data allows information professionals to demonstrate data numerically so that trends can be readily identified. Quantitative data can be an effective method to measure library usage e.g. circulation trends, amount of materials checked out, database usage, number of virtual reference questions, or to monitor foot traffic in the physical library. Tracking these trends over time can be revealing to understanding trends in the LIS field such as information trends or service usage trends. It is also important to remember however that as stated by Grassian and Kaplowitz (2009), “qualitative data can be turned into quantitative data through content analysis and well-developed rubrics”.  If you are working with a subject matter that is difficult to measure numerically, but to which quantitative data is needed for stakeholders that data can be coded or use of tools such as rubrics can be helpful in transforming data. This is especially applicable to the area of information literacy instruction. Some of the most common types of research methods are content analysis, questionnaire, interview, experiment, and bibliometrics. In Hider and Pymm (2008) study suggested that while researchers in the LIS field employed a wide variety of strategies, they mostly used surveys and experiments, but they also observed that although quantitative research accounted for more than 50% of the articles, there was an increase in the use of qualitative methods in LIS research.

Research can also incorporate multiple types of methods to effectively carry out research.  “Mixed methods research (MMR) employs a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods” (Fidel, 2008). MMR can be useful in LIS field because of the interdisciplinary nature of the field it can be helpful to utilize multiple methods to research areas of the discipline that crosses over into other fields. It can also help a research gain a well-rounded understanding of the subject of their research.

 “the motivation to mix methods in research is the belief that the quality of a study can be improved when the biases, limitations, and weaknesses of a method following one approach are counter balanced, or compensated for, by mixing with a method belonging to the other approach” (Fidel, 2008).

Using MMR can be a comprehensive way to ensure the validity of the research and to thoroughly approach solving a problem or answering research questions. The complexity of the LIS field requires future research to use increasingly diverse methods of research to help the LIS field conduct research that can help progress the field into the future and created more evidence-based practices for information organizations. The greater understanding information professionals possess related to research methods the more they can engage in scholarly conversations and exploration related to their field. Understanding research method is also critical to aiding information professionals in assisting patrons with their research and selection of research tools or literature needed to complete research in their field of study.


INFO 285 Assignment 1

INFO 285 Assignment 4

Info 200 Research Project


My first piece of evidence is assignment number one from my INFO 285 course on Research Methods in Library and Information Science Topic: Assessment of Information Literacy Instruction.  This assignment required students to create an outline of an information literacy assessment project that the students wish to undertake. I chose to undertake assessing information literacy instruction utilizing makerspaces. In this assignment, I outline the project proposal for my information literacy assessment. I included this assignment as evidence of my ability to design a research project.

My second piece of evidence is Assignment 4 from my INFO 285 course on Research Methods in Library and Information Science Topic: Assessment of Information Literacy Instruction. This assignment required students to develop a completed research proposal incorporating elements (and revisions) from earlier assignments. I chose to create a proposal for assessing information literacy instruction utilizing makerspaces in academic libraries. I included this as evidence of my ability to design a research project and demonstrate my understanding of qualitative and quantitative research methods.

My final piece of evidence is my research paper for INFO 200 Information Communities. This assignment asked students in INFO 200 to choose an information community to research. Students were asked to explore this information community and write a graduate-level research paper on this community. Students in this course were required to identify an information community to examine, locate and critically evaluate the scholarly and professional literature relating to that community’s information-seeking behavior and needs, gather additional data about your users’ information practices and preferences from community-based resources, and summarize the results.  I chose to research the information community of parents of children with Autism Spectrum disorder. I included this assignment as evidence of my ability to evaluate and synthesize research literature.


Information professionals need to have an understanding quantitative and qualitative research methods, the ability to design a research project, and the ability to evaluate and synthesize research literature so that they can facilitate research, assist researchers in utilizing research methods, comprehend complex research practices, demonstrate how to use research tools to library users, and carry out research related to the LIS field. In order to contribute to the LIS field information, professionals must be able to use research methods to carry out research or properly collect data to justify library programs or services to stakeholders. Research is a major component of many positions within the information professions and information professionals need to demonstrate an understanding of research methods and synthesizing literature to effectively perform as information professionals.  Information professionals need to understand how to synthesize literature effectively before we can instruct library users on synthesizing information ascertain from literature.


Connaway, L. S., & Powell, R. R. (2010). Basic research methods for librarians, fifth edition. Retrieved from

Fidel, R. (2008). Are we there yet?: Mixed methods research in library and information science. Library & Information Science Research, 30, 265-272.

Grassian, E. S., & Kaplowitz, J. R. (2009). Information literacy instruction: Theory and practice(2nd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman.

Hider, P., & Pymm, B. (2008). Empirical research methods reported in high-profile LIS journal literature. Library & Information Science Research (07408188)30(2), 108-114. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2007.11.007

Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. Retrieved from

Radcliff, C. J. (2007). A practical guide to information literacy assessment for academic librarians. Westport, CT: Libraries unlimited,u.s.

Competency K



Students in SJSU Ischool’s graduate program must be able to design instructional programs based on learning principles and theories;  in order to demonstrate their grasp of information sciences, their preparedness to become an information professional, and to prove that they have a firm grasp of this core competency. I have taught elementary school for many years and my first master’s program was in education. Throughout my years of teaching and my education, I have learned a lot about the principals and theories behind instruction as well as instructional design for works well for students. Utilizing effective pedagogy in instruction is essential for ensuring student success and expanding our student’s knowledge base.

I have always been committed to aid students in the construction of knowledge. I typically apply universal theories to my instructional design and in my instructional approaches to be inclusive of all types of learners. O’Connor, Chodock, Dolinger (2009) describe Universal design as, “Universal Design for Instruction (UDI), developed to increase access for students with learning disabilities at the postsecondary level, provides a framework that librarians can apply to design inclusive information literacy curricula”.  This approach to instruction is used to create a more inclusive environment for all types of learners. It is designed to keep in mind individuals with disabilities when designing course materials and instructional practices. The Universal Design for Learning according to O’Connor, Chodock, Dolinger (2009) applies three main principals to help all learners to be able to inclusively interact with instruction:
1. Provide Multiple Means of Representation (the “what” of
2. Provide Multiple Means of Expression (the “how” of learning).
3. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement (the “why” of

As instructors and teacher many of these principals come naturally as part of instruction. Incorporating this design approach to is not only inclusive of individuals with disabilities, but is effective for all learner. This approach is easily integrated into information literacy and works in collaborating with the ACRL’s framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education. This type of instruction allows all learners to have equity of access to education. As an instructor ensuring equitable access to instruction is essential to ensuring that all my students can not only engage in the learning process, but be successful learners.

I also utilize the constructivist approach to teaching and instruction because I believe in the importance of students’ ability to construct knowledge through active investigation.  Booth (2011) describes constructivism as a style in which, “learners create meaning from their environments by interpreting them through personal attributes, values, and perceptions. Literally, individuals construct knowledge by building their own context for the information they encounter”.  This approach to learning is often used by modeling behaviors and giving students the tools they need to construct knowledge through hands-on approaches to instruction. I believe it is important to facilitate learning to students, but they learn more from problem-solving approaches where they demonstrate the ability to construct knowledge from instruction. Giving students the tools to make the connections and guiding their learning through by giving guidance not answers to their problems. Learners developing critical thinking skills and allowing them to build knowledge, “in constructivism the evidence of learning is not necessarily in behavioral change, and much of how we learn occurs through observation, translation, and imitation (mimesis, socialization, and modeling)”(Booth, 2011, p. 62). I believe that constructivism is especially applicable to information literacy instruction and is also in line with the ACRL’s Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education .  Incorporating the ACRL’s frameworks into information literacy instruction is key to ensuring that the necessary information literacy skills required to navigate this age of information overload due to the increased ability to create and disseminate information. The boundaries to accessing information have increasingly lessened in the digital era and with the increased ability to quickly spread information or misinformation globally has increased the need for information professionals to be able to instructor information user in information literacy skills that are applicable in the information age.

Although these tend to be the main types of theoretical approaches I have utilized in instruction it’s important to understand and be acquainted with many approaches, practices, and theories related to instruction to ensure that you are providing effective information literacy instruction and utilizing the best techniques to enhances student learning. As Grassian and Kaplowitz (2009) states, ” effective instructors remain flexible and are willing to mix and match various techniques as needed”. Being responsive and aware of students needs and adapting instruction to fit those needs is what makes an effective instructor. Understanding that there is no one approach to instruction that is perfect or ideal all instructional theories have drawbacks. As an information professional, it is necessary to consider methods of learning and the learning needs of our students to effectively apply instructional theories to information literacy instruction. Only as effective instructors will we as information professionals are able to assist individuals in being able to effectively use and evaluate information.

As information professional instruction of information literacy is an important aspect of the profession that is growing and expanding in competencies due to the new complexity of information availability that exists in the digital era. The need for our society to enhance it’s critical thinking skills in relation to information literacy has never been more prominent as in these times of misinformation and “fake news”. The demand for information professionals to be effective and engaging instructors capable of teaching critical thinking skills to students and influence society to use information literacy skills to evaluate the information they encounter has never been more evident. Recent events in U.S. history related to the Presidential election have highlighted the need for information literacy skills in this country.  Information professionals need to be able to design instructional programs based on learning principal and theories on information literacy to effectively educate students on these essential critical thinking and evaluating skills related to information literacy.


INFO 250 Lesson Plan

INFO 254 Learning activity 5

Info 254 Guide on the Side Tutorial

INFO 254 Learning Activity 7

Screencast for Professional development workshop proposal


My first piece of evidence is from my INFO 250 course on Design and Implementation of Instructional Strategies for Information Professionals. Students in INFO 250 were asked to design a lesson plan related to information literacy with student learning outcomes based on ACRL’s framework for information literacy for higher education. For this assignment, I created a lesson plan on the spread of misinformation on social media directed to community college students to help educate them on information that is distributed via social media. I included this as evidence of my ability to design information literacy instruction based on ACRL framework and is design utilizing evidence-based instructional theories and principals.

My second piece of information is my learning activity 5 from my INFO 254 course on Information Literacy and Learning. Students in INFO 254 were asked to describe how you will evaluate your instruction to improve it for the future: Formative Evaluation is your intention for evaluating your instruction. Students were asked to use Learning Activities 1 through 4 create a final instructional design plan for a short course/workshop/tutorial. The intention of LA5 and LA6 and LA7 was to simulate the process of pulling a proposal/instructional design plan together into a coherent document that will be used to share with stakeholders for review, revision, and/or approval. In learning activity 5 I created a professional development workshop on marketing library services using Piktochart for a small community college library. In my assignment, I described the learner characteristics, materials, instructor, instructional goals, entry behaviors, learner outcomes, learner motivations, learn participation, extent materials, a rubric for testing/ assessment, follow-through activities, instructional outlines, and a formative evaluation for my workshop. I included this assignment as evidence of my ability to use instructional theories and learner principals to design an instructional workshop for information professionals and library staff members.

My third piece of evidence is my guide on the side tutorial for INFO 254 course on Information Literacy and Learning. In this assignment, students were asked to create a tutorial for information literacy using Guide on the Side tool to create a libguide. Students were asked to consider learner principals and instructional theories in the creation of their tutorials. My partner and I created a libguide for using CINAHL Headings when searching in EBSCO’s CINAHL database. We describe the theories related to designing virtual tutorials and instruction. We utilized these theories in the creation of our online tutorial for students. I included this as evidence of my ability to use instructional theories and learner principals to design an instructional to design on an online tutorial for an academic library for medical or nursing students to utilize.

My final piece of evidence is my Learning activity number 7 for my INFO 254 course on Information Literacy and Learning. The learning activity 7 assignment is the final product of my instructional workshop. Students were asked to use Learning Activities 1 through 4 create a final instructional design plan for a short course /workshop /tutorial. The intention of LA5 and LA6 and LA7 was to simulate the process of pulling a proposal /instructional design plan together into a coherent document that will be used to share with stakeholders for review, revision, and/or approval. In learning activity 7 I developed a professional development workshop on marketing library services using Piktochart for a small community college library. In my assignment, I described the learner characteristics, materials, instructor, instructional goals, entry behaviors, learner outcomes, learner motivations, learn participation, testing/ assessment, follow-through activities, instructional outlines, and a formative evaluation for my workshop. I included this assignment as evidence of my ability to use instructional theories and learner principals to design an instructional workshop for information professionals and library staff members. I also included my screencast for my proposal for a professional development workshop.


Information has become more accessible, information dissemination has become less complicated and quicker, and information creation has become increasingly available to all types of users with these changes to information comes increasing confusing for information seeker. The mass availability of information has increased the need for an information literate society and thus increased the need for information professionals with knowledge of instructional practices and approaches in order to educate our increasingly global society in information literacy skills that are relevant to the digital world of information.


Booth, C. (2011). Chapter 4: A crash course in learning theory. In Reflective teaching, effective learning: Instructional literacy for library educators. Chicago, IL: ALA Editions.

Burkhardt, J. M. (2016). Teaching information literacy reframed: 50 framework-based exercises for creating information-literate learners. London: Facet Publishing.

Chodock, T., Dolinger, E., & O’Connor, L. (2009). Applying universal design to information literacy: teaching students who learn differently at landmark college. Reference and user services quarterly, 49(1), 24-32.

Grassian, E. S., & Kaplowitz, J. R. (2009). Information literacy instruction: Theory and practice(2nd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman.

instruction 2


Competency J



Students in SJSU Ischool’s graduate program must be able to “describe the fundamental concepts of information-seeking behaviors”  in order to demonstrate their grasp of information sciences, their preparedness to become an information professional, and to prove that they have a firm grasp of this core competency. Understanding the behaviors that surround information-seeking and querying information is imperative to performing effectively in a multitude of information professions, “If you’re a librarian trying to facilitate information seeking, it’s important to have the process in the back of your mind as you engage in a reference interview” (Bell, 2015). Understanding the fundamentals of information-seeking allows information professionals to connect information to users more effectively. Knowing the motivations behind information-seeking and the type of behaviors that users present when seeking information can be extremely beneficial to information professionals when trying to address users’ needs more effectively. Once information professionals understand why and how users seek information we can optimally assist them with finding and using information. According to Chowdhury’s (2010) description of Kulthau’s model of information seeking she views information seeking, ” as a process of construction in which users progress from uncertainty to understanding”.

Understanding the fundamentals of information-seeking behaviors allows information professionals to understand what motivates people to seek information and the techniques or approaches that information seekers use when looking for information. Understanding these fundamental concepts is critical to designing interfaces for effective retrieval, selecting databases, collection development, information management, and many other aspects of the information science field. Belkin (2000) describes why users seek information, “When people engage in information-seeking behavior, it’s usually because they are hoping to resolve some problem, or achieve some goal, for which their current state of knowledge is inadequate”.  Information-seeking behavior is driven by an information need. Connecting users with an information need for information is the job of an information professional. Understanding that when people approach an information desk or message a virtual chat service they come seeking information for a particular purpose. We need to ascertain their purpose and fulfill their information needs in order to provide effective service. The same is true when users log in to use a library database or when searching an OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog).

Information users access their mental schema to draw upon information that they have already learned and understand. They use this information as a basis to seek out new information and build upon their current knowledge, “People actively and constantly construct their view of the world by assimilating and accommodating new information with what they already know or have experienced” (Kuhlthau, 1991, p.362). All individuals approach information seeking and filter information through their own personal point of view or knowledge base. These vary from person to person because people have different environments, life experiences, and previous knowledge prior to beginning a search. In order for an individual to make sense out of information, the system must consider the user in its design or in the case of reference questions or information literacy instruction must consider a user’s background knowledge when trying to connect them with appropriate information, “the effectiveness of information retrieval must consider the integration of results into the user’s own life as well as the user’s evaluation of the usefulness of the information for the resolution of the problem”(Kuhlthau, 1991, p.361).  Understanding a user’s information need, the context of the information need, the purpose of the need, and the background knowledge that a user has related to the information is essential to providing relevant information to a user. Information professionals need to ascertain this information from users in order to formulate the best approach to assisting a user. As stated by Bell (2015), “Understanding the information-seeking process also helps to inform your whole strategy of questioning in the reference interview (e.g., the use of “open” and “closed” questions) and helps to ensure greater satisfaction on both sides: librarian and patron”. Tailoring assistance to user’s needs while keeping in mind the processes they use to seek information allows databases, or collections, or information professionals providing reference services to maximize the ability to meet the user’s needs.

Information-seeking behaviors have been searched by professionals in library and information fields for decades. Bell (2015) explains that,

 “Information-seeking literature can be characterized as belonging to one of two groups: the theoretical, which discusses the topic in abstract terms and seeks to define it in terms of structured models, and the applied, which discusses it in terms of real-world observations and interactions”.

There are many models that attempt to define or explain the human behaviors related to information-seeking.There are many existing models of information-seeking behaviors that have been formulated by professionals in the library and information science field. These models of  information-seeking behavior attempt to explain the users approaches related to information-seeking. One such model that is widely referenced is Kuhlthau’s (1991) model of information stages which describes the state that exist in the process of searching for information in relation to the writing process.  Kuhlthau’s (1991) model presents information seeking in a six stage process of initiation, selection, exploration, formulation, collection, and presentation. This behavior model has influenced research in the field and continues to be utilized as Bell (2015) explains that in later literature about information seeking behaviors Kuhlthau’s model (1991) was expanded and enhanced by exploring the emotional aspects that accompany each state:

State Task Emotions


Recognize a need for information Uncertainty, apprehension
Selection Identify and select a general topic or approach. Optimism
Exploration Need to locate information about a topic, become informed, integrate new information with previously held constructs, reconcile sources providing inconsistent or incompatible information Increased confidence, sense of clarity
Formulation Focus, personalize topic by identifying and selecting ideas from all the information retrieved. Increased confidence, sense of clarity
Collection Gather information related to the restated, focused topic; clearer sense of direction allows for more efficient, relevant interactions with information systems. Confidence increases, interest in project increases, uncertainty subsides.
Presentation Prepare presentation of findings. Relief, satisfaction (or disappointment if search has not gone well)

Information professionals need to be equipped with the understanding of the emotional and cognitive tasks related to information seeking so they can better identify the stage of information seeking that a user presents so they can facilitate positive movement through these processes, stages, tasks, and emotions. In order to provide information users with the relevant information so they can form new understanding and process new information to build knowledge.


INFO 200 blog #2 on Information seeking behaviors

INFO 200 Blog assignment #3 interview with a information community member

INFO 210 Reader Advisory Assignment

My first piece of evidence information is the blog that I did for INFO 200 on information-seeking behaviors. Students in this course were required to write a blog about an information community of their choosing. This blog post assignment was to describe the information-seeking behaviors of the information community that I chose. In this assignment I chose parents of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder as a community. In this assignment I described the information-seeking behaviors that are typical of this community and defined the information needs of this community. I included this assignment as evidence because it demonstrates my fundamental understanding of information-seeking behaviors related to a specific information community.

The second piece of evidence is my blog assignment #3 from my INFO 200 course on information Communities. Students in this course were assigned to write a blog about an information community. The students were asked to choose an information community to write about in a blog. This blog post assignment students were asked to interview members of that community to gain a better understanding of the information needs and their information-seeking behaviors. In this blog I interviewed two different members of the information community that I chose to ascertain how they use libraries, what information needs they have, where they seek information, and how they seeking information related to their community. I included this blog as evidence of my understanding of interviewing information users to gain a better understanding of their information-seeking behaviors and process of an information community.

The final piece of evidence I included is my reader advisory assignment from my INFO 210 course of Reference services. Students in this course were given the assignment of discussing the behaviors related to reader advisory and determine a strategy for helping a patron find a good book. Students were asked to identify, assess, and characterize the function of various types of reference. Students were asked to conduct a reference interview and generate a list of recommendations. In this assignment I discussed the recent trend of reader advisory in academic libraries. I discussed the reference interview and the information seeking behaviors related to reader advisory reference. I describe the features of Goodreads and NoveList as resources for assisting with reader advisory.  I then used a combination of NoveList and Goodreads to compile a list of books that were similar to a book called Discovery of Witches by Deborah Harkness.  These books either include stories about witches, vampires, historical fiction, magic, fantasy, time travel or are written by the same author. I included this assignment as evidence because it demonstrates my understanding of information seeking behaviors related to providing reader advisory assists to library patrons.


Identifying and understanding the process that individuals move through to construct knowledge and discover information is vital to understanding how to assist patrons as an information professional. The evidence I provided demonstrates my understanding of information behaviors within a specific information community and how information-seeking behaviors relate to reference services. Serving one’s user whether in person or via computers such as through interfaces appropriately takes a fundamental understanding of the processes and emotions that user’s experience when seeking information. It’s necessary to understand the cognitive approaches and stages that users move through in the process of information-seeking.  When an information professional understands the motivation and approaches that are utilized by users they become more proficient in assisting users to develop strategies, select interfaces, designing interfaces, developing collections, designing information literacy instruction, and providing relevant information to their users. Understanding the fundamental concepts of information-seeking is has prepared me to become a successful information professional that can efficiently connect users to information via multiple mediums through understanding information seekers and their behaviors related to information-seeking.


Belkin, N. (2000). Helping people find what they don’t know. Communications of the ACM, 43(8), 58-61.

Bell, S. S. (2015). Librarian’s guide to online searching (4th ed.) [Kindle DX version].

Chowdhury, G. G. (2010). Introduction to modern information retrieval. New York, NY: Neal-Schuman Publishers.

Chowdhury, G. G., & Chowdhury, S. (2011). Information Users and Usability in the Digital Age. London: Facet Publishing.

Kuhlthau, C. (1991). Inside the search process: Information seeking from the user’s perspective. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42(5), 361-371.

Competency I




Students in the SJSU iSchool’s graduate programs must demonstrate their ability to use service concepts, principles, and techniques to connect individuals or groups with accurate, relevant, and appropriate information;

Providing excellent customer services to our users is at the forefront of an information professionals position regardless of the type of information organization that employs them. Using services concepts and customer service skills to ensure we are providing our users with the accurate, relevant, and appropriate information is the at one of the core values of the information profession. Providing excellent service in libraries requires a staff that puts service at the forefront of their duties. According to Evans & Alire (2013) “Staff, paid and volunteers translate a library’s strategic plan into services and collections for the community”. Information professionals are in a service position and tend to be the public face of libraries. We are the individuals who interact with patrons daily and these interactions translate into public opinions about libraries. Making service skills and understanding service principals an essential part of librarianship. As described by Evans & Alire (2013) how library staffs “determine how the users and community view the library. All the other resources, no matter how rich they may be can’t, in the long term, overcome poor staffing poor in the sense of skills and attitudes about one small word: service”. Information professionals need excellent customer service skills to be an advocate for libraries. When patrons leave the library having a positive experience it leads to a positive feeling about the library and makes it more likely that patrons will return to the library for their information needs.

Understanding the importance of good customer service skills is essential to connect users with information. In this digital age of patrons who have grown up with using technology it is harder than ever to for information professionals to demonstrate to information users the importance of utilizing and gathering accurate and appropriate information according to Bell (2015) “To sort out these more difficult questions and elicit useful information from people who convince that they are already good searchers who have done everything possible, you need all your best communication and people skills”. In order to connect users to information, we must have the customer service skills requires establishing a foundation of comfort and trust with our users. Conversation skills are needed to actively listen and respond to our customers. Before information professionals can connect users to the information they need they must first understand what information a user’s needs.

In order to assist our users with their information needs, we need to understand what techniques are applicable to providing good customer service skills.  Cassell & Hiremath (2013) recommend a six-step approach to conducting a seamless and productive reference interview: (1) establish a rapport with the user, (2) negotiate the question, (3) develop a successful search strategy, (4) locate and evaluate information, (5) ensure the question is fully answered, and (6) close the interview. Following these steps can help information professionals ensure they are meeting the needs of their users accurate, efficiently, and appropriately.  This six-step approach was based on the Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) guidelines for providing reference services also have suggestions for providing reference service to effective and efficient service to patrons.  These are best practices designed for reference professionals, but they are applicable to many positions within libraries and information organizations.  According to the Guidelines for Behavioral Performance of Reference and Information Service Providers (2013)the five main areas of behavioral performance are:

  1. Visibility/Approachability
  2. Interest
  3. Listening/Inquiring
  4. Searching
  5. Follow Up

These guidelines have been updated to include guidelines for virtual reference services. The same five main areas of performance have stayed the same, but they have added sections for general, in-person, and remote reference.  These are the essential skills needed to provide service to users regardless of the methods they are using to ask for assistance. Although, the need modification related to the mode of services being utilized such as in-person or virtual the basic concepts of service are the same. Being friendly, approachable, and engaging helps draw people into the reference desk. In virtual services, this can be translated into responding quickly with a friendly greeting. According to Gallo (2012) ” A customer’s perception of their experience begins to be formed in the first ten seconds of an interaction. Make those seconds count”. The old adage you catch more flies with honey is applicable to service-orient skills in the information professions having a smiling, warm, and polite persona invites users to seek your assistance. We cannot help the users who will not approach us because we look busy or unfriendly.

Being interested and attentive to the user while they are speaker is also important to providing excellent service to our users. Many individuals would recommend making eye contact with your users to demonstrate interest. I believe this is an oversimplified and not responsive to diverse cultures we serve. Understanding that eye contact can make individuals from a myriad of cultures feel uncomfortable as well as individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Although as Cassell & Hiremath (2013) states a librarian should ask, “open-ended questions such as these: Please tell me more about your topic. What do you want to know about the topic? What additional information can you give me?”. Asking open-ended and closed-ended questions until an information professional clarifies the needs of their users is not only an excellent reference skill it is also an excellent listening and service skill. Not interrupting a patron while they are explaining their needs and waiting patiently for a user to respond to any follow-up questions are inherently important to have effective communication as well as exceptional services skills. Following up and providing feedback to the user is also important to providing our patron with outstanding service. Letting our users know that they can come back to use our services again and ensure that their needs have been met by eliciting their feedback. Leave the users with a way to contact you if they have more questions or need further explanation. These skills are applicable to many types service that information professionals provide to users.

Keeping in mind your users when providing service is important to providing good service to information seekers. In an academic library faculty, staff, and students have extremely varied information needs and the service you provide them needs to adjust accordingly. Keeping in diverse groups of information users when providing customer service skills and understanding cultural differences in our users also helps us to provide excellent service to our patrons.  The easy access of information to users increases the need for information professionals to provide efficient, accurate, and thorough information as well application of appropriate service techniques and principals.


INFO 210 Future of Reference

Info 210 Reference Observations

INFO 210 Practice reference questions #2

My first piece of evidence is my Future of Reference assignment from my INFO 210 Reference Service course. Students in this course were required to describe the relationships between user needs, information resources, and relevant
information technologies. The assignment also asked students to describe current issues and trends in reference services, including the impact of technology on user needs and reference interactions. The assignment asks students to evaluate reference services that address the needs of a diverse and changing society. The future of reference assignment was to look ahead to the role of reference in a rapidly changing world, you will read several articles about the future of reference and write a short paper describing your personal view of how you think reference service will evolve to support users in the years ahead. In my paper, I reflected on how technology has impacted libraries and library service models. I also began to construct a philosophy regarding reference and reference services. I included this as evidence because it demonstrates my understanding of service skills and techniques as they relate to reference services.

Click here to read the assignment

My second piece of evidence is my Reference Observation assignment from my INFO 210 Reference Services course.  Students in this course were required to “secret shop” librarian in several different ways. Students were required to go to a library and ask a reference question and observe the librarian’s application of reference interview skills. The assignment required us to do an in-person observation as well as a virtual observation. Then go to a library and observe reference personnel providing service to patrons. Then identify how these librarians were implementing the guidelines determined by RUSA. I “secret shopped” a local public library and asked a reference question related to the STEM field. I then used a question I was asked at the community college library to “secret shop” the Library of Congress’s virtual chat service. Then I compared the service to the guidelines present by RUSA. Then I observed a librarian at a local community college conduct a reference interview and discussed how they incorporated the guidelines into their reference interview. I included this assignment because it demonstrates my understanding service concepts, principals, and techniques as they related to reference services.

Click here to read

My final piece of evidence is my practice reference questions assignment #2 from my INFO 210 Reference Services course. Students in this course were required to answer practice reference questions utilizing the service skills and principals that were demonstrated in our lectures and textbook. We were to provide citations and search strategies for locating materials for a particular user. I provide an introduction to how I would approach answering the question, strategies I used in finding the answer, and my answer to the reference question. I included this assignment as an evidence to my understanding of how to provide information to a user that is accurate, appropriate, and relevant while implementing proper services techniques.

Click here to read


In my experience providing customer service at the circulation desk, periodicals desk, reception at a hotel, and answering questions at Barnes and Noble in the early years of my career. These positions provided me with a basis for understanding how to provide outstanding customer service skills to users. However, my education in information science has helped me to gain a greater understanding of the techniques needed to provide your users with the information they need and keep them coming back for more assistance. Listening, knowing your users, being approachable, probing, asking for feedback, and following up are all vital to giving your customers an experience they want to relive. Implementing proper service models can make a difference on having an information organization that patrons want to visit and one that levels a negative impression on the community members. Librarians left an early positive impression on me and impacted my life for the better. The first book I ever read independently was put in my hands by kind librarian and that lead me to seek assistance from librarians in high school and college. Continued positive reinforcement over the years from my interactions with librarians lead me to love libraries and advocate for them throughout my life. Ensuring that there are future generations that grow to love libraries start with information professionals that provide users of all ages with positive experiences that encourage them to love libraries too. In my future as an information professional, I will apply all I have learned to ensure that patrons leave with an exceptional experience and impression of information professionals.


Bell, S. S. (2015). Librarian’s guide to online searching: Cultivating database skills for research and instruction (4th ed.) [Kindle DX version].

Cassell, K. A., & Hiremath, U. (2013). Reference and information services: An introduction (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: American Library Association.

Gallo, C. (2012, May 16). Apple store’s secret sauce: 5 steps of service. Retrieved November 4, 2017, from

Evans, G.E., & Alire, C.A. (2013). Management basics for information professionals (3rd ed.) [Kindle Fire version]. Available from

Reference and User Services Association. (2013). Guidelines for Behavioral Performance of Reference and Information Service Providers. Retrieved from





Competency G


Competency G

Competency G: Demonstrate an understanding of basic principles and standards involved in organizing information such as classification and controlled vocabulary systems, cataloging systems, metadata schemas or other systems for making information accessible to a clientele.

Statement of Understanding of Competency G: Today’s information professionals face an unprecedented challenge. Patrons not only have access to an extraordinary amount of information but have ever-evolving resources to access it. “Libraries and information services have long practiced a number of techniques for organizing information resources of various kinds, but the proliferation of digital material is bringing in new challenges every day, demanding new and improved tools and techniques.” (Chowdhury & Chowdhury, 2007).  For thousands of years, information professionals have been tasked with identifying information and organizing it into a collection that can be readily accessed by their patrons.

Modern information professionals have a variety of platforms they can utilize to facilitate information access and retrieval; to include search engines, e-books, meta-search engines, online databases, and other systems for making information accessible to patrons. Each information tool or system presents unique challenges regarding organizing information and facilitating patrons access the desired information without being inundated with information that is not relevant to their information needs. “modern-day approaches to cataloguing by using standard principles and practices is only a few hundred years old, and the most recent developments took place over the past few decades.” (Chowdhury & Chowdhury, 2007). The ability to understand how to use metadata to identify and mark information, build metadata schemas that facilitate classifying and cataloging information into a useful digital resource, and designing systems that meet ever-increasing information needs is essential for information professionals. According to Chowdhury (2010), there are several definitions of metadata:

  1. Metadata describes various attributes of a resource
  2. Metadata describes a discrete data object
  3. Metadata provides the users with some useful knowledge about the existences of records and their characteristics
  4. Metadata describes the content, format and/or attributes of an information resource

Understanding metadata is vital to being able to identify and mark materials to classify and catalog materials into a usable format or searchable collection. The proliferation of information in this digital age has made understanding how to organize information critical for information professionals. Creating metadata schemas to structure a system that organizes information that can be easily be searched by information seekers is a necessary skill that information professionals need to develop new methods for cataloging digital data. It is necessary to understand the principals of cataloging to understand how to retrieve information from library collections. Understanding how materials are cataloged aids information professionals in organizing data and effectively retrieving data from a library’s collection. According to Chowdury (2010) cataloging involves 4 different processes:

  1. Description of the information resource
  2. Choice of access points
  3. Choice of headings
  4. References

Understanding the processes and principals that makeup cataloging allows information professionals to utilize and create information retrieval systems that make information accessible to information users. Information professionals need to understand how to gather information, create access points, standardize formats, and link access points in order to catalog materials or data. Understanding the principals behind cataloging is a necessary skill for information professionals in this digital age because it will serve as a foundation to derive new technologies and tools that will allow information organization to catalog, archive, and preserve the large about of data that now exists in this era of user-generated content. These skills will continue to be in demand and applicable to information professionals as information continues to rapidly generate.

Coursework Contributing to the Understanding of Competency G:

My understanding of Competency G was gained from knowledge imparted to me in my classes at San Jose State University.

Info246 (Advanced Information Technology Tools) focused on using PHP (recursive acronym for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor) and SQL (Structured Query Language) to design websites that allow users to access and query information, facilitate searching online text, control access to the website, design, and use metadata schemas. In this class, we created a website that allowed the user to add and delete patrons, authored coding that manipulated an online book publishing database, and gained knowledge on how online databases are created, function, and organized.

To satisfy Competency G, I submit the following evidence:

INFO246 Exercise 4.3 html

INFO246 Exercise 4.3_PHP

INFO246 Assignment 4 HTML

INFO246 Assignment 4 PHP

INFO246 Assignment 5

Evidence E-1: INFO246 – Exercise #4-3

Exercise #4-3

My first piece of evidence is exercise 4-3 from INFO 246 Advanced Information Technology Tools. The assignment was to author a program using HTML that would organize baseball teams by years and win total. I accurately used HTML markers to describe data points and present them in a digital format. I included this piece of evidence in my portfolio because it demonstrates my understanding of using metadata to classify and organize data into an easily understood digital format. The skills gained in this assignment allowed me to have a clear understanding of how to create metadata schema that will provide information to clientele in a digital format.

Evidence E-2: INFO246 – Assignment #4

Assignment #4

My second piece of evidence is assignment 4 from my INFO 246 class (Advanced Information Technology Tools). This assignment asked the students in INFO 246 to create a PHP program that organized information and converted it into a digital format. I authored a PHP program that provided structure and context to the provided resource. My program specified data elements, provided descriptions of those elements, and facilitated information retrieval from a specified element. I included this piece of evidence in my portfolio because it demonstrates my understanding of how to design and create a system that effectively provides users with useful knowledge and the existence of records. The assignment clearly demonstrates my ability to create systems that are capable of classifying and cataloging collections, identifying, and managing collection and patron records.

Evidence E-3: LIBR246 – Assignment #5

Assignment #5

My third piece of evidence is assignment 5 from INFO 248 Advanced Information Technology Tools. The assignment was to solve problems posed by the instructor using SQL. The teacher assigned students to create a table that defined resources while specifying attributes of each element. The exercise demonstrates the ability to use SQL to establish information architecture, databases, and manage content. Through this exercise, I gained an understanding of how to facilitate interoperability between resource environments, create an electronic database that will organize information effectively, ensure, track, and control the content in the resource, and provide intuitive functions for users.  I included this piece of evidence in my portfolio because it demonstrates my understanding of how to create a system that ensures interoperability between digital and nondigital content by identifying data points and defining resource characteristics that meet patrons needs. I have learned how to create a system that creates or update records for a collection, as well as differentiate and account for the varying relationships between data points.


The skills that I have acquired from San Jose State University in digital technologies have been vitally important to my future as an information professional. The course I have taken have given me a knowledge using technology to digitally classify and catalogue information, digitize large records and data points, design a unique system that is tailored to the needs of the clientele that utilize the collections managed by the system, and the ability to adjust the system requires in such a manner that would ensure interoperability between the ever-increasing amount of formats information users can access.


Chowdhury, G. G. (2010). Introduction to modern information retrieval. New York, NY: Neal-Schuman Publishers.

Chowdhury, G. G., & Chowdhury, S. (2007). Organizing Information: From the Shelf to the Web. London: Facet Publishing.

Competency F



Students at San Jose State University are required to demonstrate competency in the ability to use the basic concepts and principles related to the selection, evaluation, organization, and preservation of physical and digital information items.  My time at San Jose State University has given me an understanding of the principals and practices related to collection development and management. Beginning with the understanding that one-way collection development can be described it as the “thoughtful process of developing or building a library collection in response to institutional priorities and community or user needs and interests” (Johnson, 2014). Recognizing that a library’s collection must be usable to its patrons and that managing a collection requires information professionals to work under constraints set by either their institutions, communities, or users is essential to effectively develop and maintain a library’s collection.

There are many concerns to take into consideration relating to collection development in the twenty-first century. Library collections are no longer simply physical collections with often the digital collections now surpassing the physical one’s magazines that once were available in print are stored online with very few available in print (Wimberly, Loertscher, & Crompton, 2014 p. 2).  As collections change and expand new issues arise with collection development. The outdated ideas about development and maintenance of collections no longer are as relevant. Space limitation is no longer as much of a concern for libraries as it was when collections were mainly physical now with the increase of technology getting digital copies of items there is limited physical space for is becoming an increasingly accessible option. However, in the digital age, there are new concerns as it related to collection maintenance and development related to licensing, usability, sustainability, and evaluation. According to Johnson (2014). collection development and management in the 21st century can include the following:

  • Choosing current materials in one or more formats for acquisitions and access
  • Using an online book vendor system to select materials
  • Selecting access methods for digital resources
  • Negotiating contracts for e-resources
  • Deciding on retrospective materials for acquisitions and access
  • Choosing which gift materials to accept
  • Evaluating free websites and web-based resources for possible inclusion in a library’s catalog or made accessible through a library’s website
  • Responding to user’s suggestions for materials to be added
  • Selecting materials to withdraw, store, preserve, replace, digitize, or cancel
  • Identifying and soliciting materials for inclusion in a digital depository
  • Designing an approval plan
  • Designing a patron-driven acquisition plan

This is far from an exhaustive list of what is required of information professionals in the twenty-first century as it relates to collection development and maintenance, but it demonstrates the increased complexity of the responsibilities of an information professional in this digital age. However, there are still concerns related to print collections that exist regarding the age, the condition of materials in our print collection, and whether to replace a print copy with a digital copy. An information professional in the digital era needs to consider selection, evaluation, organization, and preservation in a new context that includes the digital formats that now exists. A well-developed collection considers limited resources, restrictions related to space including digital storage space while considering their user’s needs, the usability of digital formats/ interfaces, and the long-term sustainability of digital copies or licenses.

These increased complexities and with information increasing rapidly it is necessary to utilize tools and evaluation methods such as collection mapping which is, ” a way to chunk the collection into manageable pieces and parts each its own function, expected impact, budget, and accountability to the audience it was designed to serve” (Wimberly, Loertscher, & Crompton, 2014 p. 2). Information organization typically have limited resources available to develop and maintain a collection and with the increased complexity that exists with the modern collection development process being able to break the collection down into pieces makes this process more feasible to manage.

An information professional must be able to examine the information needs of their users and determine whether their collection is meeting the needs of those users. Using a patron-driven acquisition system can help information organization better understand the needs of their patrons. Once information on user needs has been gathered an information professional needs to evaluate the collection to see if the collection can meet those information needs by considering whether the collections are current enough to meet their needs, if the materials are in the correct format to meet user’s needs, and if comprehensive enough to meet their needs. If information gaps have been identified the information professional needs to determine while considering their current budget, storage (including digital storage), institutional proprieties, currency, and preservation of the materials how to acquire materials to address those information gaps.  An information organization must ensure that their users have access to the information that is right for their information needs while taking into account an information organization’s limited resources requires an in-depth understanding of the institution’s collection. One way to assess a collection is by creating a visual collection map that allows an information professional to visualize the collection using graphic representations as roadmaps to guide collection development and maintenance (Wimberly, Loertscher, & Crompton, 2014 p. 3).  This allows an information professional to have a visual representation of their collection, so they can quickly identify gaps in the collection and plan to fill those gaps that are in line with the limited resources available and in line with their institutional policies. Evaluation is essential to confirm that user needs are being consistently met in a method that is feasible for long-term sustainability and within budgetary restrictions. It also allows an information professional to consider the organization of a collection and have a visual representation of how information is being organized within the library, so they can determine if the collection needs reorganization to become more accessible to users.

Preservation of materials in a digital context can be more complex because information professionals need to consider meeting users’ needs in a way that consider the expense of preserving these materials over time this can be a challenge for digital formats because of changing technologies. Information professionals need to consider now not just storage of physical materials in a long-term sustainable way, but that of their digital collections. Data storage and the sustainability of digital formats are new considerations that information professionals need to take into account when considering collection development and management. Technology is evolving and proliferating with this continuous progress technologies are quickly becoming obsolete and replaced with new technology. This makes preservation in a digital context more complex when you consider if purchasing a current digital format is optimal and whether that format will be usable in a few years when technologies have evolved. Information professional also need to consider the long-term maintenance cost of both print or digital formats and determine which method is the most cost-effective for their collection. Collection development and management is the ongoing process of planning, assessing, and balancing the users’ needs against the resources available to fill those needs while maximizing usability and cost efficiency.


In order to provide evidence of my competency in the area of collection development and maintenance is concerned, I have assembled the following pieces of examples of my work:

INFO 266 Presentation 7

INFO 266 Presentation 3

INFO 266 Presentation 3& 4 Gallery Walk

My first piece of evidence is my presentation 7 for my collection development course (INFO 266). Presentation 7 assignment for this class required students to evaluate the current collection of a particular library with as up to date information that was available to students regarding the library’s collection regarding expenditure, format, the scope, sustainability, relevance, currency, and usability of the collection.  The project including created a collection map in previous assignments and then utilizing that map and graphical representation of the collections to create a plan for the future of the collection regarding areas of the collections that were rated low.

Presentation 7 required students to address the information gaps in a way that met user needs and selection of formats that increase the usability of the collection. Creating a budget for expenditure within the current budgetary restrictions that are representative of the patrons and institutional needs. I included my plan for the future of the collection of Andrew G. Truxal library a small academic library as evidence of my understanding of the principals of collection development and management of both physical and digital resources.


Click here for Presentation 7:

My second piece of evidence is my presentation 3 from my collection development course (INFO 266). In this assignment, students were required to create a graphical representation of the collection of the library they have chosen. The students were required to use to create an infographic for the collection of their chosen library. This would be used to demonstrate the library’s core collection and rate several of the general collection topics. Then chose a general collection topic from the core collection to evaluate in-depth. Then within that general collection topic find the special emphasis collections which is, “in-depth collections built to serve a specific local history, strength; curricular topic, teacher, school initiative, faculty research interest; or other purpose”(Wimberly, Loertscher, & Crompton, 2014). Then create a collection map using the guiding methods and principals of collection mapping of Wimberly, Loertscher, & Crompton (2014).  This was created to show an understanding of the principals of collection development and management and assess the usability and determine if the collection is meeting the patron’s needs. I included this assignment as evidence of my understanding of the value of usability and the principals of collection evaluation. This evidence also demonstrates an understanding of collection organization.

Click here to view Presentation 3:

My final piece of evidence is presentation 4 from my collection development class (INFO 266). The students in this course were assigned to create a graphical representation using piktochart to demonstrate the current expenditures of a chosen library then present it to a group assigned by library type for comments. My chosen library was an academic library and I was placed in a group of academic libraries. I created an infographic for presentation for presentation 4. This infographic depicts the current state of the collection at Andrew G. Truxal Library and the future projections of the collection. There is a plan expansion of digital materials and a decrease in print materials. The most substantial decrease will be in the form of print serial collection. This also shows the intention to increase technology spending at Truxal library. The need for expansion in the Culinary Arts collections. The projected areas of the collection to expand. I included this assignment as a demonstration of my understanding of the principals of collection development and management as it related to budgetary constraints and expenditures. This infographic also demonstrates my understanding of the principals of collections evaluation as it relates to budgetary concerns for both physical and digital resources.

Click here to view presentation 4: Presentation 4


Understanding the delicate balance required to maintain and develop a collection in an information organization is an indispensable skill for information professionals. Evaluating the formats and expenditures of an information organization is essential in the twenty-first century in order to optimize a collection while adhering to budgetary constraints. Changing acquisition models to more patron drive approaches and evaluating a collection to determine its usability are necessary to ensure that a collection is meeting the needs of its users. Balancing a collection so that it is in line with institutional policies, user’s needs, budgetary constraints, and planning for long-term sustainability is knowledge that information professionals need to implement efficient collection development and management within their information organizations. This is a vital skill that I have gained during my time as a student at San Jose State University.


Johnson, P. (2014). Fundamentals of collection development and management [Google play version]. Retrieved from

Wimberly, L. H., Loertscher, D. V., & Crompton, M. (2014). Collection development using the collection mapping technique: A guide for librarians (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City, UT: Learning Common Press.